A1 Journal article (refereed), original research

Characterisation of Industrial Side Streams and Their Application for the Production of Geopolymer Composites

Open Access publication

Publication Details

Authors: Küçük Mehmet Emin, Kinnarinen Teemu, Timonen Juha, Mulari Olli, Häkkinen Antti

Publisher: MDPI

Publication year: 2021

Language: English

Related journal or series: Minerals

Volume number: 11

Issue number: 6

eISSN: 2075-163X

JUFO level of this publication: 1

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/min11060593

Open Access: Open Access publication


This study focuses on characterisation of side streams including biomass fly ash, biomass bottom ash, coal fly ash, green liquor dregs, limestone mine tailings, and electric arc furnace steel slag from different industrial locations in Finland. It was found that the fly ash samples contained the highest Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 concentrations, a large number of spherical particles of small sizes and high specific surface areas. Fly ashes and steel slag were observed to contain higher amounts of amorphous phases compared to the other side streams. The high loss on ignition value of the coal fly ash and green liquor dregs was found to exceed the limitations for their application in geopolymer composites. Despite their relatively high concentrations in ashes and steel slag, the leaching tests have shown that no hazardous metal leached out from the streams. Finally, test specimens of geopolymer composites (GP2) were prepared by the application of biomass fly ash, bottom ash, and limestone mine tailings without any pre-treatment process, in addition to the ordinary Portland cement-(R) and metakaolin-based geopolymer composites (GP1). The measured compressive (14.1 MPa) and flexural strength (3.5 MPa) of GP2 suggest that it could be used in concrete kerbs and paving flags. The data has also shown that over 500% of the compressive strength was developed between 7 and 28 days in GP2, whereas in the case of reference concrete (R) and the metakaolin-based geopolymer composite (GP1) it was developed in the first 7 days.


Last updated on 2021-20-10 at 10:40