A1 Journal article (refereed), original research

Real-time fouling monitoring with Raman spectroscopy


Publication Details
Authors: Virtanen Tiina, Reinikainen Satu-Pia, Kögler Martin, Mänttäri Mika, Viitala Tapani, Kallioinen Mari
Publisher: Elsevier
Publication year: 2017
Language: English
Related Journal or Series Information: Journal of Membrane Science
Volume number: 525
Start page: 312
End page: 319
Number of pages: 8
ISSN: 0376-7388
eISSN: 1873-3123
JUFO-Level of this publication: 3
Open Access: Not an Open Access publication

Abstract
The possibility to detect and identify early stage membrane fouling in real-time is a key to understand fouling phenomena. In this study normal Raman spectroscopy was explored as a novel online tool for monitoring membrane fouling. Raman spectra were measured during cross-flow experiments in which vanillin was used with different concentrations as a model compound for organic foulants. The measured Raman spectra were analyzed and interpreted by using principal component analysis and external calibration in order to determine the adsorbed amount of vanillin during the fouling process. Fouling induced changes in pure water permeabilities and off-line measured FTIR spectra were also analyzed in order to confirm the results of the real-time monitoring system. It was found that an increase in the solution concentration increased the degree of vanillin adsorption and led to better water permeabilities. The procedure used is able to provide results that describe well the accumulation of foulants in a straightforward and semi-quantitative way. The results demonstrate that the introduced monitoring tool has potential for gaining new knowledge about fouling layer formation.

Research Areas

Last updated on 2018-19-10 at 07:55