A1 Journal article (refereed), original research

Force Approximation of the Human Hand in Contact with a Climbing Wall Handle

Open Access publication

Publication Details
Authors: Orzechowski Grzegorz, Hämäläinen Perttu, Mikkola Aki
Publication year: 2020
Language: English
Related Journal or Series Information: Archive of Mechanical Engineering
Volume number: 67
Issue number: 3
Start page: 263
End page: 278
Number of pages: 16
ISSN: 0004-0738
eISSN: 2300-1895
JUFO-Level of this publication: 1
Open Access: Open Access publication


This paper presents a new algorithm that approximates the forces that
develop between a human hand and the handles of a climbing wall. A
hand-to-handle model was developed using this algorithm for the Open
Dynamics Engine physics solver, which can be plugged into a full-body
climbing simulation to improve results. The model data are based on
biomechanical measurements of the average population presented in
previously published research. The main objective of this work was to
identify maximum forces given hand orientation and force direction with
respect to the climbing wall handles. Stated as a nonlinear programming
problem, solution was achieved by applying a stochastic Covariance
Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). The algorithm for force
approximation works consistently and provides reasonable results when
gravity is neglected. However, including gravity results in a number of
issues. Since the weight of the hand is small in relation to the
handto-handle forces, neglecting gravity does not significantly affect
the reliability and quality of the solution.

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Last updated on 2020-03-12 at 10:41