A1 Journal article (refereed), original research

Carbon Handprint: Potential Climate Benefits of a Novel Liquid-Cooled Base Station with Waste Heat Reuse

Open Access publication

Publication Details
Authors: Kasurinen Heli, Vatanen Saija, Grönman Kaisa, Pajula Tiina, Lakanen Laura, Salmela Olli, Soukka Risto
Publisher: MDPI
Publication year: 2019
Language: English
Related Journal or Series Information: Energies
Volume number: 12
Issue number: 23
ISSN: 1996-1073
JUFO-Level of this publication: 1
Open Access: Open Access publication


The novel life cycle assessment (LCA)-based carbon handprint indicator represents a potential carbon footprint reduction that producers/products create for customers who use the(ir) product instead of a baseline product. The research question is how to consider a situation in which multiple customers use a product for different purposes to provide a carbon handprint quantification and the associated communication. The study further provides new insight into the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction potential within the mobile telecommunications and energy sectors. The carbon handprint of a novel Finnish liquid-cooled base station technology is quantified. The liquid-cooled base station provides a telecommunications service and waste heat that is recoverable through the cooling liquid for heating purposes. The baseline solutions are an air-cooled base station, and district and electrical heating. The liquid-cooled base station creates a carbon handprint, both through energy savings in telecommunications and additional waste heat reuse, replacing other energy production methods. A large-scale climate change mitigation potential through a liquid-cooled base station expansion could be significant. Different supply chain operators’ contributions to the total carbon handprint could be terminologically distinguished in communications to emphasize their roles in a shared handprint. The handprint should be transparently communicated for each customer and function.

Last updated on 2020-20-03 at 10:03