A1 Journal article (refereed), original research

Review of Electrical Motor Drives for Electric Vehicle Applications

Open Access publication

Publication Details
Authors: Cao Wenping, Bukhari Abid Ali Shah, Aarniovuori Lassi
Publisher: Mehran University of Engineering and Technology
Publication year: 2019
Language: English
Related Journal or Series Information: Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology
Volume number: 38
Issue number: 3
Start page: 525
End page: 540
Number of pages: 16
ISSN: 0254-7821
eISSN: 2413-7219
JUFO-Level of this publication: 0
Open Access: Open Access publication


EVs (Electric Vehicles) have been rejuvenated over the last decades while the motor drive technologiesare still evolving. This paper provides a review of electrical motor drive technologies used in EVapplications, with a performance comparison of candidate machines and their drive topologies. EVapplications demand high efficiency, high torque density, high reliability, and wide speed range whilereducing weight, complexity, total costs and environmental impact. In the literature, DC (Direct Current)motors, IMs (Induction Motors) and PM (Permanent Magnet) motors can be generally found in marketplacewhilst RMs (Reluctance Motors) have been researched for some time and are nearing commercialavailability. This paper evaluates the performance of these four main types of electrical motor drives forEV propulsion applications using analytical methods. PM motors may offer the best performance interms of torque density and compactness but the cost is the highest (primarily dominated by rare-earthpermanent magnets), limiting their widespread application in mass production EVs. DC motors havetheir own merits but suffer from limited power density and necessity for maintenance. Induction motordrives are a mature and proven technology. In particular, squirrel-cage IMs are robust, reliable andinexpensive, striking a balance between system cost and complexity, power density and extended speedrange. Reluctance motors can provide a good torque density and cost effective EV drive solutions. Theirdrawbacks can also be overcome by the use of power electronic converters and advanced control strategies.Induction and reluctance motor drives are well suited for cost sensitive mass production EV applications.Looking to the future, increased hybridization may be a way forward in industry which combines attractivefeatures of different electrical machines and control algorithms and still offer much promise inperformance and total cost. At last, reliability study on EVs requires historical information and drivingpatterns, demanding research expertise in eco-sociology, human behaviors as well as human-machineinterface.

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Last updated on 2020-20-03 at 10:03